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Useful Quotations


An anthology of truly great quotations, compiled by George Seldes and published by Castle Books as Great Quotations, suggests that something similar would both encourage and serve those who write about how to make shipyard management more effective. Thus, herein is a collection of quotations that I found useful. They address management of shipyards that build, modernize and repair ships, specifically including naval ships, and heavy construction other than ships.

Louis D. Chirillo

The quotations are organized per the following categories:



"If weldments are not neat, without weld distortion, further problems will persist and cost control will be difficult." Elmer L. Hann

"The key to rapid construction is how to weld without distortion and shape of weldments or modules that defy or resist distortion especially when such effects the vessel's measurements and locked-in stresses." ibid

"Statistical accuracy control is means for accuracy information to be collected, analyzed, and reapplied." Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI)

"Statistical accuracy control is a production need that is imposed on planners and schedulers." ibid

"Statistical accuracy control is the best way to transfer knowledge of assembly processes from production to design." ibid


*** "The most important thing in shipbuilding is how to analyze." Y. Mikami, IHI

"In some large establishments with numerous shops the expense burden is averaged and applied on the basis of productive labor notwithstanding the fact that in one shop the shop expense is nearly a hundred while in another it is less than twenty five. Frequently such establishments are called to bid for work which is almost exclusively confined to the shops where the expense is low, and by using the higher average rate the bids are high and the work goes to other establishments where costs are more accurately determined. Thus profitable work is often lost." Holden A. Evans, Cost Keeping and Scientific Management, McGraw Hill, New York, 1911

"Systemized statistical analysis and feedback ensures that experiences and lessons learned are acquired by the organization and translated into improved productivity." Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control, National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP), August 1985

"Stability, or the existence of a system, is seldom a natural state. It is an achievement, the result of eliminating special causes one by one on statistical signal, leaving only the random variation of a stable process." W.E. Deming, Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position, MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, ISBN -911379-00-2, Cambridge MA, 1982, p. 119

"Empower workers to use statistics in order to find the sources of problems." W. Edwards Deming

"The product-oriented cost methodology is structured in such a way that the impact of process change and production learning can be evaluated at the lowest possible level." A Study of Shipbuilding Cost Estimating Methodology, by Engineering & Management Sciences Corporation, 20 January 1969, for the Maritime Administration

"Concerning writing an old Sicilian proverb says, 'White soil, black seed. Beware of the man who sows it. He never forgets.' So it is with statistical accuracy control because real performance data is recorded and analyzed. It constantly targets problems, it monitors rates of improvement, and it never forgets." Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control, NSRP August 1985

"If I were a banker, I would not lend money for new equipment unless the company that asked for the loan could demonstrate by statistical evidence that they are using their present equipment to reasonably full capacity." W. Edwards Deming

"If Suzuki can handle statistics so can Smith!" Analytical Quality Circles, R. D. Chirillo for the University of Washington Ship Production Technology Course, 3 October 1983


"The world hates change, yet it is the only thing that has brought progress." C.F. Kettering

"The art of progress is to preserve order amid change and to preserve change amid order." Alfred Whitehead

"Admit science and new ideas into your life. If you do not, they will devour you." Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

"The thing I really learned at IHI Kure Shipyard is that you cannot focus on any one of the goodies available. You have got to use them all!" Torbin Anderson, Executive Vice President, Odense Steel Shipyard, at the 1990 Ship Production Symposium


"A comprehensive computerized design system, consistent from design through production, could not be effectively realized without standards or modules." Y. Ichinose, Improving Shipyard Production With Standard Components and Modules, SNAME Spring Meeting, April 26-29, 1978

"Standards and modules show their greatest advantage when integrated with a comprehensive computer system." ibid

"On-line technology makes it possible to have centralized control with decentralized decision making." McBride & Scott Brown in The Future of On-Line Technology

"A computer lets you make more mistakes faster than any other invention in human history, with the possible exception of handguns and tequila." The Pleasure Machine, MIT Technology Review, Spring 1992


"...for the virtual corporation, the key is no longer ownership of processes, but control of results." Michael Borrus

"Statistical control improved quality, laid the foundation of modern ship construction methods, and made it possible to extensively develop automated and specialized welding!" The Society of Naval Architects of Japan, 1967

"We have to control material, because we cannot control people." Y. Mikami, IHI

"If you have them by the material, their hearts and minds will surely follow." Don Corleone


"The present (system-oriented) costing procedure is not suitable or even adaptable to its major use, which is that of a shipyard cost accounting system." A Study of Shipbuilding Cost Estimating Methodology, by Engineering & Management Sciences Corporation, 20 January 1969, for the Maritime Administration

"A product-oriented cost methodology conforms...with the way a ship is built rather than the way it is designed." ibid

"The criteria for a desirable cost methodology all require the use of a cost methodology that is based on the nature of the ship production process rather than on the systems contained within the ship." ibid

"The way work is performed in the shipyard is of more interest to the cost analyst than the particular system within which work is contained. ibid

"The cost methodology should be directly related to the way the ship is built. The people building the ship understand the shipbuilding process and do not require an understanding of the ship design or ship operation. ibid

"Traditional system-oriented cost methodology, ­although it meets the requirement for design control accountability, does not provide the engineer with adequate cost data for detail tradeoffs and evaluation. ibid

"The cost methodology should be production process related or, in other words, product oriented to be compatible with all shipyards and all types of ships." ibid

"Traditional costing per system lumps many dissimilar work items under a single cost heading. There is no way of segregating returned costs for the different work items.­ This makes the analyses of returned costs difficult, if not impossible." ibid

"The new (product-oriented) methodology must have unit cost data as a direct output for compatibility with the existing systems-oriented format. This feature will permit the backward conversion of unit cost data to the existing (systems) format in a complete, accurate, and relatively simple manner." ibid

"The cost methodology should be standard for all ships and not change from contract to contract since the production method does not ordinarily change." ibid

"A desirable cost methodology should be able to measure the effects on cost of ship production process innovations (regardless of their degrees of impact and their frequencies of occurrence). ibid


"Most owners have the naval architect prepare a preliminary design... (that) is embodied in a contract design. The shipyard is instructed to retest the lines, recalculate the calculations and in general to give the naval architect, on behalf of the owner, a hold-harmless agreement. It is the owner, whether he realizes it or not, who pays for this double engineering and who, through the technical bickering that always seems to ensue between yard and naval architect, receives a compromise design that neither fully meets his requirements nor one that has a responsible party for recourse." John Boylston and Warren Leback, SNAME Annual Meeting, November 1975

"...naval architecture functions have often been separated from the shipbuilding process. In general, there have been two kinds of relationships between naval architects and their clients: in one case, they are attached to the owner, and in the other to the shipbuilder. The design process should be better integrated with production." John M. Stewart & Arthur J. Haskell, SNAME Annual Meeting, November 1995

"Conventionally drawn arrangement drawings appear to fully locate all components and completely define the ship systems; but, they in fact do not. The majority of components are approximately located; this is the reason for liners, pipe templates, added materials, etc.; not to mention fouls." from a discussion of SEAWOLF Producibility, Marine Technology, January 1989

"...­conventional practice has required the tradesmen on the job to definitize the design work that has been only approximated by the working drawings." ibid

"Quality is an essential step in reducing design cycle time, which is becoming one of the distinct competencies of a company in the global wars between corporations." K.R. Bhote


"...­if U.S. shipyards ­were able to conduct overhauls as efficiently as the Japanese, we would not send any of our U.S. flag vessels to the Far East for shipyard repairs." A. Leonard Course, Chevron Shipping Company; Public Hearings Before the Commission on Merchant Marine and Defense, May & July 1988, p. 529

"Although United States shipyard management is well aware of the modern production organization methods of process lane work flow and zone/area/stage outfitting, actual conversion of the management process to take advantage of the productivity enhancing concepts has been very slow. ...­If an infusion of federal capital is employed¡­the opportunity to revolutionize United States shipbuilding operational management should be an integral part of the program." Third Report of the Commission on Merchant Marine and Defense: Appendices, U.S. Government Printing Office, 30 September 1988, p. 214

"America requires ' unprecedented ability of the entire economy to shift back and forth between peacetime and defense production, particularly at an instant's notice. This demand on which our survival may well depend, is above all a demand on the competence of managements...." Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management, Harper & Rowe, New York, NY; 1954


"Group Technology is the logical arrangement and sequences of all facets of company operations in order to bring the benefits of mass production to high variety, mixed quantity production." G.M. Ransom


"The success of a virtual corporation will depend on its ability to gather and integrate a massive flow of information throughout its organizational components and intelligently act upon that information." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

"As the rapidly gathering, manipulating, and sharing of information became a preeminent process and as the company's boundaries grow increasingly fluid and permeable, established notions of what is inside or outside a corporation become problematic, even irrelevant." ibid

"Effective integration of a corporation wide information system requires that management both understand the flow of data through the firm beforehand and be comfortable using technology afterwards." ibid


"Workers work within a system that, regardless of their efforts, is beyond their control. It is the system, not their individual skills, that determines how they perform. Only management can change the system." Dr. W. Edwards Deming

"Workers who are not blamed for trouble that they can do nothing about, are apt to submit suggestions for fine tuning management's system." ibid

"Variation is part of any process. There will always be some workers performing above average, some below." ibid

"Another example of union cooperation to adjust is Corning, where management, working with the American Flint Glass Workers Union, has undertaken a massive shift of its twenty-thousand workers to self-managing work teams." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

"If you do not like the way we are organized, change the way you organize work. If you do, you will cause problems for people like me, but we will get to where you want to go. It won't be as fast as you want, but we will get there. Management infers leadership, so act like leaders. Take the first step!" Paul J. Burnsky, AFL/CIO Metal Trades Department

"...­the President of the United Steel Workers said, 'Where we see poor maintenance or the failure to innovate and stay modern we will make such matters a subject of discussion with management.'" Business Week, 24 December 1979


(Re shipbuilding in the U.S.) "...­nowhere else in the world is a great percentage of the construction cost of a vessel allocated to legal fees, accounting procedures, and associated personnel. John Boylston & Warren Leback, SNAME Annual Meeting 1975

(After a U.S. shipyard abandoned a commitment made in a letter of intent), "We could sue, but that is not IHI's style." H. Nakai - President, IHI Marine Technology


"The most dangerous bottleneck was the shortage of men able to operate shipyards." Admiral Emory S. Land, Chairman of the Maritime Commission during World War II

"America has a human problem, not enough college educated people in middle management." H. Shinto

"Only America has the resources to surpass Japan in shipbuilding. I mean large numbers of intelligent people." H. Shinto

"We used a group of junior engineers...shifting them from one department to another - most became top-notch supervision." Elmer L. Hann

"The future does not depend on technology alone, but also on the ability to manage it." anon

"In the area of human resources, it is the management of U.S. yards, not the direct labor force, whose practices will need to change for the yards to compete in the world marketplace." John M. Stewart & Arthur J. Haskell ¨C SNAME Annual Meeting, October 1955

"Traditional managers believe that there would be no problems in production if only the workers would do their jobs. Pleasant dreams. The workers are handicapped by management's system." W. Edwards Deming

"Without statistical logic, management learns words and goals, but not methods by which to reach the goals." ibid

"Coordination is of the essence. No single element in shipbuilding is sufficient unto itself. Workers without plans and materials would produce nothing, just as plans and materials without workers would not build ships." L.H. Korndorf, President, Federal Shipbuilding & Dy Dock Company, 1941

"...when a crack begins to appear in the monolith of American manufacturing, the great industrial leaders quickly blame others for their problems. The villains include: indolent labor, high cost of capital, trade restrictions, tax policies, litigations and product liability, predatory foreign competition, environmental regulations, a poorly educated work force, etc. Yet ignored in all this were the flaws in the internal mechanisms of the corporations themselves." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

"...­the function of management is to produce results.... Perhaps the most fundamental transition will be the shift that management will have to make from directing action to ensuring the smooth functioning of processes." ibid

(Re the introduction of participative management, e.g., design build teams, managers) "...knowing when to lead and when to stay out of the way; and merely keeping up with the group's range of interests and responsibilities will be extremely challenging." ibid

(Re design build teams, one) "...of the great challenges...­is finding ways to make teams work - the problem for the present is how to keep management from making those teams fail." ibid

"The American worker is excellent. All you have to do is change the minds of managers." H. Shinto

(Re the introduction of participative management, e.g., design build teams, success) "...depends increasingly on tapping into sources of good ideas, on figuring out whose collaboration is needed to act on those ideas, on working with both to produce results. In short, the new managerial work implies very different ways of obtaining and using power." H.M. Kantor, Harvard Business Review

(Re the introduction of participative management, e.g., design build teams, managers) "...must learn to operate without the crutch of hierarchy. Position, title, and authority are no longer adequate tools, not in a world where subordinates are encouraged to think for themselves and where managers have to work synergistically with other departments and even other companies." ibid

"Conceptual foundations that underlie the Japanese management boom are: (1) scientific management as the key to productivity, (2) decentralization as a basic principle of organization, (3) personnel management as the orderly way of fitting people into organization structures, (4) manager development to provide today for the needs of tomorrow, (5) managerial accounting, that is, the use of analysis and information as the foundation of managerial decision making, (6) marketing, (7) finally, long-range planning." Peter Drucker, 1986

"Management has the responsibility to help people work smarter, not harder." W. Edwards Deming

America requires " unprecedented ability of the entire economy to shift back and forth between peacetime and defense production, particularly at an instant's notice. This demand on which our survival may well depend, is above all a demand on the competence of managements..." Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management, Harper & Rowe, New York, NY; 1954

"From an IHI manager's viewpoint, the improvement effort should be focused not only on the technical elements, but also on human management." H. Sasaki, IHI's Experince of Technical Transfer, Journal of Ship Production, May 1988, p. 104

“The problem's roots lie in the fact that the terms ‘CEO’ and ‘leader’ have mistakenly become synonymous. Nothing could be further from the truth. CEOs are measured by quantitative results. Leaders are shaped and defined by character. CEOs are expected to boost sales, improve profit margins, and make money for shareholders. Leaders inspire and enable others to do excellent work and realize their potential. As a result, they build successful, enduring organizations.” When CEOs Aren’t Leaders,” Henry S. Givray, Business Week, 3 September 2007, p. 102


"Process simulation...­can help in organizing the firm around process flows, instead of around functional departments or other activities that have no value to the customer." John M. Stewart & Arthur J. Haskell, SNAME Annual Meeting, October 1995

"...virtual work flows are...­means for effectively organizing very much of a ship production effort, particularly outfitting and painting, and because they are means for bringing unprecedented order to...­shipboard overhaul activities." ibid

"A product work breakdown is the framework of any shipbuilding system that features organized production lines based on the principles of Group Technology. Statistical control of accuracy is the means used to continuously improve a system by optimizing design details, work methods and dimensional tolerances. Line heating is the work method specifically developed to productively achieve the tolerances so identified. The three disciplines are interdependent." Line Heating, National Shipbuilding Research Program, November 1982, p. i

"Lean production is not a solitary event but the continuous application of a process. A company becomes lean by making gradual improvements in each step of the manufacturing process." Ohno, Toyota Production Systems

"In the United States, they (professors and theorists) are trying to apply Toyota System as Lean Manufacturing but Japanese shipbuilding industries have developed their own system to achieve Lean Manufacturing, but we didn't call it that." T. Wada, to the American Society of Naval Engineers 4 September 2002 Symposium; Bremerton, Washington, USA

"Constantly improve the system. That obligation never ceases." W. Edwards Deming


"If you want to reduce material costs, you cannot leave selection of materials up to individual designers. This means that a system of shipyard standards is required." T. Hamasaki, IHI, 6 June 1984

"The statement 'quality may be considered along with price' is meaningless without a quality yardstick. The buyer is a candidate for plunder by the lowest bidder." W. Edwards Deming

"Just in time is sometimes used in ironic juxtaposition with just in case, the...philosophy of keeping massive inventories on hand to cover any eventuality." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

"For a virtual corporation to succeed, it must be so closely linked with its suppliers as to create a shared destiny." ibid

"Customers and suppliers...will have to risk dependency in order to reap the benefits of relationships. Co-destiny is a price that will have to be paid." ibid

"Materials - Palletization and Purchasing: This aspect of the program was most critical and required radical rethinking of our previous procedures." D.W. Challinor, President, Versatile Pacific Shipyards, Inc.;
presentation to the CSSRA Annual Technical Conference, 10-12 February 1986 in Quebec

"It has become obvious to many manufacturers that their ability to become world-class competitors is based to a great degree on their ability to establish high levels of trust and cooperation with suppliers." Robert E. Spekman

"In the business world, we always say that an agreement can only be based on mutual confidence. If confidence is lacking - whether justifiably or not - nothing can be done until it is restored." Birger Dahlerus, 27 August 1939

"There are many places where close relationships between customers and suppliers solve problems." Brian Joiner


"Today's hierarchical and directive management systems...are a legacy of the past." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

"The transition from systems-oriented to zone-oriented shipbuilding methods requires development of technical, professional, and managerial skills to cope with the integration of previously segregated functional skills, more precise information, improved technical understanding, and greater facility in dealing with earlier decision making." National Research Council, 1984

"Flexible-system production is rooted in discovering and solving new problems; high volume, standardized production basically involves routinizing the solutions to old problems. Flexible system production requires an organization geared for change and adaptability; high volume, standardized production requires and organization geared to stability."Robert B. Reich, The Next American Frontier, The Atlantic Monthly, March 1983

" is no longer an impediment, neither is it sufficient.... The Japanese...­more than the Americans, appreciate that fact. (The challenge is) rethink the role of every office¡­every factory workstation in the company." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

"...corporations that expect to remain competitive must quickly achieve mastery of both information and relationships. Technology by itself without commensurate changes in the rest of the corporation, will fail." ibid

"...the corporate organization of the future¡...will be conducted more like...a symphony orchestra." Main in The Winning Organization

*** "Every functional manager considers his function the most important one. This results in high emphasis on craftsmanship and professional standards. But it also makes people in the functional unit prone to subordinate the welfare of the entire business, to the interests of their unit. There is no real remedy against this tendency in the functional organization." Peter Drucker

"Boeing's bold switch to Japanese style work teams: ...integrated design build teams replacing turf-minded supervisors with self-regulating cross-discipline teams. A big obstacle is entrenched autocratic culture, where information is something old-line managers guard jealously. Supervisors may agree to abdicate authority but revert to old style intimidation at the first sign of a deadline." The Seattle Times, 7 April 1991

"...­the virtual corporation may exist in a state of perpetual transformation." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

"Design and material definition are aspects of planning." IHI


"If we could first know where we are and from whither we are tending, we could better judge what to do and how to do it." Abraham Lincoln


"A conventional shipyard, converting to modern Japanese shipbuilding techniques, and through an increase in engineering and planning personnel, can reduce direct employees by 30% within an overall force reduction of 30%. A shift of skill mix within the same total force can increase output by approximately 50%." A Study of Shipbuilding Cost Estimating Methodology, by Engineering & Management Sciences Corporation, 20 January 1969, for the Maritime Administration

"Zone logic is more effective in outfit-intensive ships, particularly in warship construction where the weapon arrangement is so concentrated within limited space." H. Shinto, 1980

*** "It's that simple. High intelligence is the only source of competitiveness." H. Shinto, Washington Post, 19 April 1983


"Why is it that productivity increases as quality improves? Less rework." W. Edwards Deming

"Quality is an absolute prerequisite to cycle-time reduction." K.R. Bhote

"Quality is the engine that drives a company to the bank...." ibid

"There is no more powerful cost reduction tool that quality improvement." ibid

*** "Japanese quality circles grew out of statistical techniques first introduced in the 1950s...." ibid

"...­improving our quality and reducing our costs have to be thought of as one and the same." Vice Admiral Stanley R. Arthur, USN; Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Logistics) to the 1989 Logistics Symposium


"Margins are commitments to rework!" anon

"The use of chain falls or jacks to force pipe pieces into alignment is rework!" anon

"Make-up pipe pieces are commitments to rework!" anon


"Standards and modules show their greatest advantage when integrated with a comprehensive computer system." Y. Ichinose, IHI

"...­a comprehensive computerized design system, consistent from design through production, could not be effectively realized without standards or modules." ibid

"Only straight pipes and 45º- and 90º-bend pipes are allowed. One of the most important things is to reduce the number of components in a ship and to control the creativity of designers." Torbin Anderson, Executive Vice President, Odense Steel Shipyard, at the 1990 Ship Production Symposium


"At IHI each employee submits an average of 18 suggestions for improvement per year." Daily Journal of Commerce - Seattle, 29 July 1992


(Re participative management, e.g., design build teams) "...there was active opposition from managers who were not about to change. They had thrived at putting out fires and were highly praised by the top management for being able to do so. They didn't really want to stop being heroes." E.L. Abt

(Re participative management, e.g., design build teams, many traditionalists) "...have staked their lives on playing the corporate game by long-established rules and are now expecting the payoff, only to be told that the rules have changed and the rewards have disappeared." W.H. Davidow & M.S. Malone in The Virtual Corporation

(Re participative management, e.g., design build teams, the) "...very notion of this type of corporation can strike terror in the hearts of managers who relish their power and of employees who aren't interested in the burden of command. It can also...lead to chaos in which every participant holds an opinion and no one is in a position to make a final decision." ibid

(Re the introduction of participative management, e.g., design build teams, the) "...hardest person to change is the line manager. After working like a dog for five or ten years to get promoted, we have to say...all those reasons you wanted to be a manager? Wrong! cannot do to your people what was done to you." Paul Allaire

"Opposition of a passive nature on the part of those who simply cannot deal emotionally with change, those whose outlooks and life-styles are seemingly threatened, those who don't want to know how bad things are, who would prefer to live in the comfort of their former ignorance." Vladimir Pozner

"He had met that kind­. He knew them now by their very tone of voice and manner. They sat on a nickel's worth of knowledge as if it were the great Inca treasure, and if anyone junior to them learned something, they thought they were being robbed. Nothing in the world delighted Jake Holman more than bankrupting a son of a bitch like that." Richard McKenna in The Sand Pebbles

*** "There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous in conduct, or more uncertain of success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things." Machiavelli in The Prince

"The innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions." ibid

"...­heroes.... People who conquer against odds - people who leave a wake of human progress." Frank Capra in The Name Above the Title


Regarding “Product Work Breakdown Structure – November 1980” published by the NSRP, "Without such awareness we will continue to suffer from suboptimal efforts from well-intentioned middle managers trying to incorporate new ideas piecemeal from the bottom up without any recognized overall framework for change." Richard H. Vortmann, April 1981

*** "There is no requirement for a different shipbuilding system to naval building. Because the 'problem areas' may be different and operational requirements are much more complex the type of interim products will also be different but the logic remains intact. Product Work Breakdown Structure is a universal truth not to be argued with." Roger Vaughan, 1982

"There is nothing like a product work breakdown structure in the U.K. As a matter of fact, there is nothing like a product work breakdown structure in all of Europe." ibid

Posted at 00:49:49 on 08/06/07 by Lou Chirillo


A reader in Pakistan wrote:

Thank you, Lou, for these gems and much else that you have put on the internet. I marvel at your energy and output. Where do you find the time to do all this gratis work? America owes its greatness to people like you.
posted at 06:20:17 on 05/29/08

Lou wrote:

Thank you for the eloquent compliment. Please go to <http:/> and click on 'NSRP Panel SP-2 Publications' for my response.
posted at 12:19:45 on 10/24/08

insurance wrote:

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posted at 07:39:32 on 07/23/09

Pat wrote:

Mr. Chirillo - your website is fantastic - informative and highly readable. Thank you for sharing your research and personal knowledge -- too many Americans don't know our own history.
posted at 13:43:55 on 08/09/09

Aniefon Daniel wrote:

Mr. Chirillo, ur article is so informative. You carefully compiled ur work with lots of references. It's really nice.
posted at 20:42:41 on 09/14/10

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